Rutgers New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station [The New Jersey Water Resources Research Institute]

NJWRRI Funded Research: Fiscal Year 2011

Faculty Research

 

Graduate Student Research

 

NIWR/USGS National Competitive Grant Program

 

For more information on the research you see here, including the full text of reports, please see our FY 2011 Annual Report.

 

Faculty Research

An Investigation of the Water Quality of Rain Water Harvesting Systems

Michele Bakacs1 and Mike Haberland2
1Rutgers Cooperative Extension of Middlesex and Union Counties
2Rutgers Cooperative Extension of Burlington and Camden Counties
Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey

 

In New Jersey, small scale rainwater harvesting using rain barrels has become a popular method for watering backyard and community gardens. This research will help increase our understanding of the chemistry of harvested water and the safety of using harvested rainwater on vegetable gardens, for which little information currently exists. This study examined levels of four contaminants in rainwater draining off asphalt shingled roofs and collected by rain barrels: lead, zinc, total coliform, and Escherichia coli. In addition, we investigated whether there is a significant difference between levels of contaminants draining roofs in different land uses, specifically, suburban verses urban communities. The results of this research will help to develop guidelines for water testing, results interpretation and best management practices for applying harvested rainwater to backyard and community gardens.

Water quality analyses showed that the water quality standards for zinc were not violated in either the suburban sites or the urban sites. The mean zinc concentration in the urban sites (89.4 μg/L) was more than double the suburban sites (37.1 μg/L). The surface water and groundwater quality standard for lead in both urban and suburban sites was violated. The groundwater and drinking water quality standards for total coliform were violated at all sites for all sampling events. Potential sources of total coliform are wildlife (birds, small mammals/squirrels) that have access to the monitored roofs or are living in trees adjacent to the homes. There is no surface water quality standard for total coliform. E. coli data was not included in the analyses due to the low number of samples collected.

In analyzing whether land use had an effect on rain barrel water quality, zinc showed a statistically significant difference between urban and suburban land uses in all of the analyses performed. Zinc concentrations were much higher in the urban sites when compared to the suburban sites. There was no statistical difference between urban and suburban land uses for all analyses of lead. Total coliform levels showed no statistically significant differences between urban and suburban land uses. Residual water left in the barrels does not seem to impact total coliform levels.

Contact Information:

Michele Bakacs
Rutgers Cooperative Extension of Middlesex County
Telephone: (732) 398-5274
E-mail: bakacs@njaes.rutgers.edu

Mike Haberland
Rutgers Cooperative Extension of Burlington County
Telephone: (856) 566-2914
E-mail: haberland@njaes.rutgers.edu


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Scrap Tire and Water Treatment Residuals as Novel "Green" Sorbents for Removal of Common Metals from Polluted Urban Stormwater Runoff

Assistant Professor Yang Deng, Professor Dibyendu Sarkar and Research Assistant Professor Sudipta Rakshit
Department of Earth and Environmental Studies
Montclair State University

 

Stormwater best management practices (BMPs) are control measures taken to address the quantity and quality issues of urban runoff. To remove metals from urban runoff, many structural BMPs have been attempted, including bioretention, wet ponds, constructed stormwater wetlands, dry wells, extended detention basins, infiltration basins, and manufactured treatment. Some of the conventional structural BMPs are almost ineffective for metals, and many others, such as infiltration basins, are often impractical to implement in urban environments. These limitations have generated modifications to existing structural BMPs or led to the design of new BMPs that can properly treat urban stormwater constituents. Therefore, innovative, cost-effective, low-impact treatment options for heavy metals in urban runoff are needed to improve environmental quality and safeguard public health.

The long term goal of this study was to develop an effective, low-cost and "green" BMP to sustainably address the issue of metal pollution in urban runoff. The primary objective
of this study was to evaluate the performance of two recycled wastes, aluminum-based drinking water treatment residuals (Al-WTR, left in photo) and Tire Rubber (TR, right in photo), in the adsorption of three major runoff metals (Cu, Zn and Pb), and to assess potential leaching of metals from spent sorbents. Our central hypothesis was that Al-WTR and/or TR can effectively and irreversibly adsorb Cu, Zn and Pb from urban stormwater runoff under a variety of relevant environmental conditions.

Based on the current data, a few significant outcomes were obtained, including:
1. WTR can rapidly adsorb Cu, Zn and Pb from water. Moreover, it has high adsorption capacities for the metal of concern. Therefore, WTR appears to be an excellent remediation material to address metal pollution in urban runoff.
2. TR also adsorbs Cu and Pb in water. However, compared to WTR, its adsorption rate is relatively slow. Likewise, its adsorption capacity is lower than that of WTR. Accompanied with Cu and Pb adsorption on TR, Zn in TR gradually leaches out into bulk solution, implying that Zn leaching might have been enhanced by Cu/Pb-Zn exchange in TR.
3. A mixture of WTR and TR are able to quickly and effectively adsorb Cu and Pb. In addition, in the presence of WTR, less Zn is leached, thus indicating that WTR can adsorb Zn released from TR. This finding suggests that TR should be used in conjunction
with WTR, because the latter can minimize Zn release from TR.

Contact Information:

Assistant Professor Yang Deng
Montclair State University
Telephone: (973) 655-6678
E-mail: dengy@mail.montclair.edu


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Evaluation of organoclay in a permeable pavement system for removal of contaminants from urban stormwater runoff

Amy Rowe, Ph.D.
Rutgers Cooperative Extension of Essex and Passaic Counties
New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station
Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey

Permeable pavement can not only reduce stormwater volume, but can filter some contaminants from runoff, as well. The addition of organoclay to the storage layer beneath the porous surface may adsorb typically hard-to-remove contaminants such as metals and hydrocarbons from infiltrating stormwater. It is expected that a permeable pavement system with an organoclay layer will remove hydrocarbons and metals more efficiently than one without any added organoclay. The pervasive presence of metals and hydrocarbons in urban runoff generally render it unusable, but the removal of these contaminants would possibly allow for the beneficial reuse of stormwater that would typically enter the sewer system.

The area underneath city sidewalks is generally an unexploited space with little to no value, and, at the same time, permeable pavement sidewalks have recently been gaining in popularity. These two tendencies could be combined to evaluate the possibility of a passive stormwater treatment system in an under-utilized piece of the cityscape. These treatment systems would not take up much space, would be underground, and would not spoil the aesthetic of the urban environment. These stormwater management systems would also be relatively easy to implement and cost-effective, as many cities have aging infrastructure and sidewalks that are in disrepair, so the installation could coincide with the regular sidewalk maintenance schedule. Finally, a permeable pavement sidewalk stormwater treatment system would not only reduce urban runoff volume, leading to a decreased burden on the combined sewer system, but the treated exfiltrate could be beneficially reused in community gardens or city landscape installations. It is expected that there would be many advantages to installing a permeable pavement sidewalk stormwater treatment system, but that there may be some unforeseen complications that may or may not outweigh those benefits.

Specific study objectives:
• Determine the removal efficiency of metals and hydrocarbons for a permeable pavement system cell with added organoclay compared to one without.
• Determine the practical feasibility of a permeable pavement sidewalk stormwater treatment system in terms of design and implementation.

Contact Information:

Amy Rowe, Ph.D.
Rutgers Cooperative Extension of Essex County
Telephone: (973) 287-6360
E-mail: rowe@njaes.rutgers.edu

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Graduate Student Research

Assessment of Green Frog, Lithobates clamitans, populations as biological indicators of risk to communities near Superfund sites

Jennifer Costello with Professor Richard Veit
Department of Biology
College of Staten Island

Amphibians have permeable skin that has the potential to absorb harmful substances from their environment. Responses to these pollutants may be intensified by stressors present in their surroundings. Exposure to both stressor and pollutant are not limited to adulthood, but rather are continuous throughout their lifetime due to the unique nature of the amphibian lifecycle. The effects of such exposure may not be immediately lethal, but rather may result in sublethal responses. Decreased feeding efficiency is one such response. Preliminary findings in this study demonstrate correlations of at least one environmental stressor, low levels of dissolved oxygen (DO) in pond water critical for survival of eggs and tadpoles, with decreased feeding efficiency.

While no significant difference is immediately apparent between UVB readings from each site, previous studies have found UVB intensity readings as low as 93 μW/cm2 to contribute to 93% mortality of larval amphibians [Calfee, 2006]. While most intensity readings collected from both sites were two to three times greater than this value, vegetation cover and oviposition depth could minimize UVB impacts to both amphibian embryos and larvae. Limited cover from UVB radiation has been associated with developmental abnormalities such as delayed development and limb deformities.

Further analysis of correlations between metals present in the soil and sediment at each of these sites with feeding efficiency is anticipated to reveal similar relationships. In addition, continued analysis of the data is necessary to determine if any synergistic interactions are evident between abiotic factors and feeding efficiency.

Reference:
Calfee, R.D., Christine M. Bridges, C.M., Little, E.E. Sensitivity of Two Salamander(Ambystoma) Species to Ultraviolet Radiation. Journal of Herpetology. 2006. 40: 35-42

Contact Information:

Jennifer Costello
College of Staten Island
Telephone: (718) 982-3850
E-mail: Jennifer.Costello@csi.cuny.edu

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Assessment of the water-borne pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, in New Jersey amphibians and their habitat

Paola Dolcemascolo1 with Assistant Professor Kirsten Monsen2
1 Department of Earth and Environmental Studies
2 Department of Biology and Molecular Biology
Montclair State University

The initial problem was to understand the prevalence and intensity of the water-borne fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) in New Jersey amphibians. The objectives related to addressing this problem were twofold. First, to correlate water and air temperature to the prevalence and intensity of Bd. Other studies in the field and in the lab have shown that Bd is sensitive to both water and air temperature. No such study has been done in New Jersey. Our lab is the first lab to document Bd in the state (Monsen-Collar et al. 2010) and preliminary results show that Bd prevalence may be higher during cooler months. Second, to relate biotic factors to prevalence and intensity of Bd. I anticipated species-specific responses to Bd, with some species exhibiting more susceptibility to both infection and disease symptoms. Areas with significant populations of Bd-resistant organisms, such as bullfrogs and tiger salamanders, would have a higher prevalence of Bd.

While sampling for Bd and not finding any amphibians exhibiting symptoms of even a mild Bd infection, we were alerted to the presence of great quantities of dead tadpoles in Ocean County, NJ; tadpoles exhibited symptoms consistent with a Ranavirus disease. The Ranavirus disease is even more lethal than that caused by the Bd fungus, typically killing amphibians within a few days to a week of infection (Harp and Patrenka 2006). The presence of Ranavirus had never been documented in New Jersey prior to this occasion, and so we decided to focus our efforts on confirming, via molecular analyses, that the diseased tadpoles were indeed infected with Ranavirus and attempting to track the spread of the disease through the state.

PCR results: Of the 27 L. clamitans samples from the Ocean County site that were subjected to traditional PCR, 20 (all tadpoles) tested positive for the presence of Ranavirus DNA. Results were confirmed by sequencing. Of the 38 A. fowleri tadpoles collected, three tested positive for Ranavirus using traditional PCR; after rerunning these samples with RT-PCR one additional sample came up positive for Ranavirus. One adult L. sphenocephala, which was found dead on site, tested positive for Ranavirus using traditional PCR. With regards to the other sites throughout NJ, one A. fowleri tadpole from Tuckahoe pond in Upper Township has tested positive for Ranavirus.

To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of Ranavirus in the state of New Jersey. What is disturbing is the significant level of mortality associated with an outbreak of Ranavirus and the rapidity with which it spreads through a population. Furthermore, at this time it seems as if Ranavirus is located in the southern part of NJ, which is home to numerous amphibians and reptiles of special concern, such as the Pine snake, the Pine Barrens Treefrog and the Southern Gray Treefrog (Hyla chrysoscelis). Ranavirus has been known to affect a wide variety of amphibians and reptiles, and so such a deadly disease could pose a significant threat to New Jersey’s herpetofauna.

This work is ongoing and sites visited in 2011 will be re-visited to track the progression of the disease over multiple years and seasons. Results are being shared with NJ Division of Fish and Wildlife to implement wide-scale sampling for Ranavirus throughout the state and to create educational materials for wildlife managers in order to help document outbreaks and contain the spread of the disease.

References:
Harp, EM and JW Patrenka. 2006. Ranavirus in wood frogs (Rana sylvatica): Potential
sources of transmission within and between ponds. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 42(2),
307-318.

Monsen-Collar KJ, L Hazard, R Duss. 2010 Comparison of PCR and RT-PCR in the
First report of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in amphibians in New Jersey.
Herpetological Review, 41(4), 260-462.

Contact Information:

Paola Dolcemascolo
Montclair State University
E-mail: flatleyp@mail.montclair.edu

Assistant Professor Kirsten Monsen
Montclair State University
E-mail: monsenk@mail.montclair.edu

 

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Advancing the characterization of sandstone and fractured limestone aquifers using surface electrical geophysical methods: application to water resources evaluation at two sites in New Jersey

Mehrez Elwaseif with Professor Lee Slater
Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences
Rutgers University – Newark

The primary objective of this research is to advance surface Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and Electrical Resistivity (ER) processing techniques for characterizing sandstone and limestone subsurface aquifers at two sites in New Jersey. Our research explores the use of time – frequency analysis to process GPR data in order to better characterize sandstone and limestone aquifers. We have applied three popular time frequency analysis tools (short time Fourier Transform, Wavelet Transform and STransform)on a synthetic non-stationary signal to identify the optimum approach to use for the GPR processing. In addition, we have tested the performance of our suggested approach, S-Transform, on synthetic GPR data representing variety of fractured limestone and sandstone model scenarios. The S-Transform results show that a frequency shift occurs when the GPR signals transmit through mediums that have different dielectric permittivity values. Furthermore, our developed approach facilitates mapping particular targets of interest (e.g. water filled fractures) based on their observed frequency shift, and ignoring all the remaining features within the data. We also describe a resistivity inversion strategy that is more appropriate for defining layers and for reconstructing the conductivity distribution within those layers.

Contact Information:

Mehrez Elwaseif
Rutgers University – Newark
E-mail: Mehrez@andromeda.rutgers.edu

Professor Lee Slater
Rutgers University – Newark
E-mail: lslater@andromeda.rutgers.edu


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Identification and Characterization of Novel Antibiotic Resistance Genes from Wastewater Effluents and Surface Waters

Maryam Honarbakhsh with Assistant Professor Elisabetta Bini
Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology
Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey

The proposed project is concerned with the impact of antibiotic pollution on the establishment of emerging diseases. The rationale for the proposed work is provided by preliminary data that I have generated during the preparation of my master thesis. I have compared the structure of microbial communities at different sites upstream and downstream the Somerset Raritan Valley Sewage Authority in New Jersey. I have also investigated the occurrence of antibiotic resistance in bacterial isolates from the final effluents of the plant, and from two locations downstream the sewage discharge. All the isolates resulted resistant to elevated concentrations of amoxicillin, regardless of the site of sampling, and many showed azithromycin and trimethoprim resistance. Based on these results, I made the hypothesis that resistance to specific antibiotics observed downstream the discharge is due to lateral transfer of resistance genes from wastewater effluents to freshwater bacteria. Alternatively, resistance might have derived from the selection of pre-existing resistant genes in the native community as a consequence of prolonged exposure to antibiotic pollutants. To distinguish between these two hypotheses, gene sequences would be analyzed and compared to establish if antibiotic resistance is mediated by lateral gene transfer (sequences have a common origin), or if it emerged by selection of rare pre-existing resistant genes in the native community (multiple or polyphyletic origins). To enable the detection of unknown and novel antibiotic resistance genes encoded by plasmids or chromosome encoded, I proposed the following approach:

Aim #1. Detection of antibiotics resistant genes encoded by plasmids. Plasmids of cultured microorganisms and metagenomic DNA isolated from the WTP effluents and the surrounding area were targeted for sequencing to detect novel antibiotics resistance genes.
Aim #2. Detection of antibiotics resistant genes chromosome-encoded. Gene expression libraries were prepared using metagenomic DNA, and screened for their ability to confer specific antibiotic resistance to sensitive strains. The sequences of clones identified this way were determined.

The sequences obtained through aim #1 and #2 were analyzed using phylogenetic methods, including distance and maximum parsimony analyses, to assess the relationship among sequences from different sites and track their origin.

Contact information:

Maryam Honarbakhsh
Rutgers University

Assistant Professor Elisabetta Bini
Rutgers University
E-mail: bini@aesop.rutgers.edu

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Development of a Push-Pull Technique to Simultaneously Characterize Volatilization and Biodegradation Rates of VOCs in Shallow Wetland Sediments

Matthew Reid with Professor Peter Jaffe
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Princeton University

Plant-enhanced remediation of contaminated sediments and groundwater, or “phytoremediation,” is an attractive alternative to traditional environmental remediation methods due to its energy-efficiency and cost-effectiveness.  Vegetated soils act to remove organic contaminants through biodegradation, sorption, and plant uptake.  Of these three processes, plant uptake remains the least understood.  In particular, the extent to which organic pollutants are transported through plants and volatilized to the atmosphere  (“phytovolatilization”) is highly uncertain due, in part, to difficulties in the measurement of these processes.  Volatilization can be an effective remediation mechanism because it transports VOCs to the atmosphere, where they are degraded to nontoxic products on the order of days relative to months to years by natural attenuation in groundwater.  Effective phytoremediation strategies require estimates for volatilization rates, however, and the subsequent times scales for phytoremediation applications.  Phytovolatilization rates will be highly site-specific, and at present there are no good field measurement techniques for assessing rates of phytovolatilization.  The objective of this project was to develop a push-pull test (PPT) to simultaneously quantify in-situ rates of biodegradation and volatilization of organic contaminants in shallow wetland sediments.

Contact Information:

Matthew Reid
Princeton University
E-mail: mcreid@princeton.edu

Professor Peter Jaffe
Princeton University
E-mail: jaffe@princeton.edu

 

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Release of Hazardous Metals into Surface and Groundwater by Microbial Oxidation of Sulfide Minerals

Alexandra Walczak1 with Professor Lily Young2
1 Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics
2 Department of Environmental Sciences
Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey

Current research on metal distribution in New Jersey waterways in the Newark Basin has largely focused on aquatic chemistry, hydrology, and on aquatic organisms such as fish and birds. A crucial link remains to be understood regarding the fate of these metals, namely the effects of microorganisms. Once metals such as lead (Pb) are mobilized, the likelihood of human exposure increases, and can result in well-documented health effects. Lead has been found to be especially harmful to children because they are still in the crucial stages of development. In adults it can cause reproductive problems, high blood pressure, hypertension, nerve disorders, memory and concentration problems, and muscle and joint pain. Lead has also been shown to reduce photosynthesis in phytoplankton; increase mortality of polychaetes, bivalves, and crustaceans; affect development of fish embryos; and cause neurological disorders in birds (Crawford et. al., 1994).

This study will focus on determining the effect microbial activity has on releasing Pb from the sediments. Bosea sp. str. WAO was isolated from the Lockatong formation based on its ability to oxidize and mobilize arsenic and sulfur from arsenpyrite, and will be used as the experimental model organism in this study (Rhine et al, 2008). The metal sulfide galena (PbS) will be used as an energy source for this chemolithitrophic organism to grow at mesophilic temperature and circumneutral pH. The rate and extent of oxidation of the mineral will be monitored by measuring the release of sulfate and metal ion by ion chromatography and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES), respectively. The oxidation process will also be monitored visually using confocal microscopy. This study will demonstrate WAO’s ability to oxidize metal sulfides releasing soluble metal ions and sulfate at mesophilic temperature and circumneutral pH. This research can be applied to advanced modeling and mitigation strategies.

References:
Crawford DW, Bonnevie NL, Gillis CA, Wenning RJ. Historical changes in the ecological health of the Newark Bay Estuary, New Jersey. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 1994 12;29(3):276- 303.

Rhine ED, Onesios KM, Serfes ME, Reinfelder JR, Young LY. Arsenic transformation and mobilization from minerals by the arsenite oxidizing strain WAO. Environ Sci Technol 2008 Mar 1;42(5):1423-9.

Contact information:

Alexandra Walczak
Rutgers University
E-mail: awalczaal@eden.rutgers.edu

Professor Lily Young
Rutgers University
E-mail: lyoung@aesop.rutgers.edu

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NIWR/USGS National Competitive Grant Program

Does urbanization decrease baseflow? A historical, empirical analysis in the coastal states of the Eastern United States

Assistant Professor Joshua Galster1 and Kirk Barrett, Ph.D.2
1 Department of Earth and Environmental Studies
2 Director, Passaic River Institute
Montclair State University

Approximately half of the U.S. population depends on surface water (rivers and
reservoirs) for their drinking water. During dry weather, rivers and reservoirs are fed by
baseflow. Many of these areas are urbanizing, in some cases rapidly. Theoretically,
urbanization will cause a decrease in baseflow, which means urbanization is a threat to
water availability for about half the population. Reduced baseflow can also negatively
affect stream biota. The problem is that it is not clear if (and to what degree) this
theoretical linkage between urbanization and decreased baseflow is actually experienced in the real world; there are several process associated with urbanization that could confound the theoretical relationship. This project will help resolve this relationship by conducting a large spatial and temporal scale, empirically-based investigation into the urbanization-baseflow relationship. The project will determine if (or how likely) there really is relationship between urbanization and decreased baseflow in a real watershed.

We are empirically investigating the relationship between urbanization and
stream baseflow by examining the stream discharge records maintained by the United
States Geological Survey in ten states: NY below the Adirondacks, CT, NJ, PA, DE,
MD, VA, NC, SC, and GA. We will select gages that have continuous records for at
least 25 years and have had substantial changes in the amount of impervious surfaces
within the watersheds. As a control, we will also analyze trends in ten gaged
watersheds per state that showed near constant imperviousness. We will separate
baseflow from other stream flows using a digital filtering method and aggregate daily
baseflow to create an annual baseflow time series for each gage. We will then compute
time series of three baseflow statistics: 1) annual baseflow per unit drainage area, 2)
ratio of baseflow to precipitation and 3) baseflow fraction of total flow.

 

Contact Information:

Assistant Professor Joshua Galster
Montclair State University
Telephone: (973) 655-4123
E-mail: galsterj@mail.montclair.edu

Kirk Barrett, Ph.D.
Passaic River Institute
Telephone: (973) 655-7117
E-mail: kirk.barrett@montclair.edu

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Drought and Flood in the Eastern US

Professor James Smith, Research Scholar Justin Sheffield and Professor Eric Wood
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Princeton University

We propose to develop statistical procedures for regional analyses of drought and flood in the eastern US based principally on USGS stream gaging data. We will focus on the interrelationships between drought and flood, with a particular emphasis on water supply    systems for large urban centers of the eastern US. Procedures will exploit mixture distribution representations of flood and drought variables; these representations center on tropical cyclones, which are major rainfall and flood agents during summer and fall, and extratropical systems, which are major rainfall and flood agents during spring and fall in the eastern US. We adopt a regional approach covering the eastern US due to the scale of the weather and climate systems at play. Special emphasis will be placed in this study on the Delaware River basin (water supply for New York City), the Potomac River basin (water supply for Washington D. C.), the Catawba River basin (water supply for Charlotte, North Carolina) and the Chattahoochee River basin (water supply for Atlanta, Georgia). The procedures that we will develop are designed for broad use by USGS National and District offices for water resource assessment studies. Additional users will include river basin planning and management agencies (including the Delaware River Basin Commission and Interstate Commission on the Potomac River Basin), states and local municipalities.

The procedures will be used for regional assessments of drought and flood frequency, short-term (seasonal to interannual) characterization of drought and flood occurrence and long-term trend assessment of drought and flood variables. These procedures will provide capabilities for regional water resources analyses covering the eastern US. Detailed analysis capabilities will be developed for the Delaware, Potomac, Catawba and Chattahoochee River basins, providing information on drought and flood frequency for major urban centers of the eastern US.

The broad objective of this study is to develop statistical tools for characterization of water resources and flood hazards based on USGS streamflow records. The specific objectives of the study are to develop statistical procedures for: 1) assessing non-stationarities of drought and flood variables (in terms of change-points, slowly varying trends and long-term persistence), 2) characterizing spatial extremes of drought and flood and 3) characterizing the interrelationships between drought and flood, including their relationships to climate indices. The project will be carried out over a two year time period. Development of data sets and statistical procedures will be largely completed during year 1. Implementation of procedures for assessing nonstationarities in drought and flood variables will be completed in year 1. Other project tasks will be initiated during year 1. In the second year of the project, we will complete analyses of the interrelationship of drought and flood for the eastern US, analyses of spatial extremes and analyses of drought and flood occurrence in terms of climate indices. We will also synthesize analyses for the Delaware, Potomac, Catawba and Chattahoochee River basins during year 2.

Contact information:

Professor James Smith
Princeton University
E-mail: jsmith@princeton.edu

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